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{ACI 543R 12 Design Manufacture Pdf}



Commonly, pile foundations are designed, constructed, and tested based on the specifications and recommendations of applicable codes. ACI 543R-12, Eurocode 7, Indian Standards, and AS 2159- 2009 are examples of common and most widely used codes used to design and construct pile foundations.




{ACI 543R 12 Design Manufacture Pdf}



ACI 543R-12(Guide to Design, Manufacture, and Installation of Concrete Piles) providesrecommendations to assist the design architect/engineer, manufacturer, fieldengineer, and contractor in the design and use of most types of concrete pilesfor many kinds of construction projects.


It presents various types of pile foundations and discusses factors that should be considered in the design of piles and pile foundations. Moreover, the ACI 543R- 12 introduces materials used in constructing concrete piles and makes recommendations regarding how these materials affect the quality and strength of concrete.


Furthermore, minimum requirements and basic manufacturing procedures for precast piles are stated so that design requirements for quality, strength, and durability can be achieved. Finally, it outlines the general principles for proper installation of piling so that the structural integrity and ultimate purpose of the pile are achieved.


Eurocode 7 is used for all the problems of interaction ofstructures with the ground. It addresses not only buildings but also bridgesand other civil engineering works. Eurocode7 consists of two parts including EN 1997-1 Geotechnical design - Part 1:General rules (CEN, 2004) and EN 1997-2 Geotechnical design - Part 2: Groundinvestigation and testing (CEN, 2007).Eurocode 7 - Part 1 section 7 discusses the pile foundation.


The Australian Standard (AS 2159-2009) sets out the minimum requirements for the design, construction, and testing of piled footing for building structures on land or immediate inshore locations. It has excluded offshore or deep-water construction.


ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices,and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning,designing, executing, and inspecting construction. Thisdocument is intended for the use of individuals who arecompetent to evaluate the significance and limitations ofits content and recommendations and who will accept re-sponsibility for the application of the material it contains.The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all re-sponsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shallnot be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.Reference to this document shall not be made in con-tract documents. If items found in this document are de-sired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contractdocuments, they shall be restated in mandatory languagefor incorporation by the Architect/Engineer.


This report presents recommendations to assist the design architect/engi-neer, manufacturer, field engineer, and contractor in the design and use ofmost types of concrete piles for many kinds of construction projects. Theintroductory chapter gives descriptions of the various types of piles anddefinitions used in this report. Chapter 2 discusses factors that should be considered in the design ofpiles and pile foundations and presents data to assist the engineer in evalu-ating and providing for factors that affect the load-carrying capacities ofdifferent types of concrete piles. Chapter 3 lists the various materials used in constructing concrete pilesand makes recommendations regarding how these materials affect the qual-ity and strength of concrete. Reference is made to applicable codes andspecifications. Minimum requirements and basic manufacturing proceduresfor precast piles are stated so that design requirements for quality, strength,and durability can be achieved (Chapter 4). The concluding Chapter 5 out-lines general principles for proper installation of piling so that the struc-tural integrity and ultimate purpose of the pile are achieved. Traditionalinstallation methods, as well as recently developed techniques, are discussed.


en the soil at the tip. Postgrouting may be used after installa-tion to densify the soil under the pile tip. Concrete piles can also be classified according to the con-dition under which the concrete is cast. Some concrete piles(precast piles) are cast in a plant before driving, which allowscontrolled inspection of all phases of manufacture. Otherpiles are cast-in-place (CIP), a term used in this report to des-ignate piles made of concrete placed into a previously driv-en, enclosed container; concrete-filled corrugated shells andclosed-end pipe are examples of CIP piles. Other piles arecast-in-situ (CIS), a term used in this report to designate con-crete cast directly against the earth; drilled piers and auger-grout piles are examples of CIS piles.


Another enlarged-tip pile consists of a precast reinforcedconcrete base in the shape of a frustum of a cone that isattached to a pile shaft. Most frequently, the shaft is a corru-gated shell or thin-walled pipe, with the shaft and enlarged-tip base being mandrel driven to bear in generally granularsubsoils. The pile shaft is completed as a CIP pile, and reinforce-ment is added as dictated by the design. Precast, enlarged-tipbases have also been used with solid shafts, such as timberpiles. The precast, enlarged-tip base can be constructed in awide range of sizes.


With reference to Factor 3, specific recommendations aregiven to ensure a pile foundation of adequate structural capac-ity. The design procedures recommended are based on conser-vative values obtained from theoretical considerations,research data, and experience with in-service performance.


A pile can be structurally designed and constructed tosafely carry the design loads, but the pile cannot be consid-ered to have achieved its required bearing capacity until it isproperly installed and functioning as a part of an adequatepile-soil system. Thus, in addition to its required design loadstructural capacity, the pile must be structurally capable ofbeing driven to its required bearing capacity. This necessi-tates having one set of structural considerations for drivingand another for normal service. Usually, the most severestress conditions a pile will endure occur during driving.


On some projects, existing subsurface data and prior expe-rience can be sufficient to complete the final foundation de-sign, with pile driving proceeding on the basis of penetrationresistance, depth of embedment, or both. On other projects,extensive exploration and design-stage pile testing can be re-quired to develop final design and installation requirements.


Over the past 30 years, wave-equation analysis has takenits place as a standard tool used in pile foundation design andconstruction control. Through the sponsorship of the FederalHighway Administration, wave-equation programs arereadily available through public sources (Goble andRausche 1976, 1986; Hirsch et al. 1976), as well as fromseveral private sources. Today, with both wave-equationanalysis software and computer hardware readily availableto engineers, there is no reason to use dynamic formulas.The one-dimensional wave equation mathematically de-scribes the longitudinal-wave transmission along the pileshaft from a concentric blow of the hammer (Edwards 1967;Hirsch et al. 1970; Lowery et al. 1968, 1969; Mosley andRaamot 1970; Raamot 1967; Samson et al. 1963; Smith1951, 1955, 1962). Computer programs can take into ac-count the many variables involved, especially the elasticcharacteristics of the pile. The early programs were deficientin their attempts to model diesel hammers, but research inthis area has improved the ability of modern programs toperform analysis for this type of hammer (Davisson and Mc-Donald 1969; Goble and Rausche 1976, 1986; Rempe 1975;Rempe and Davisson 1977).In wave-equation analysis of pile driving, an ultimate pilecapacity (lb or N) is assumed for a given set of conditions,and the program performs calculations to determine the netset (in. or mm) of the pile. The reciprocal of the set is thedriving resistance, usually expressed in hammer blows perin. (mm) of pile penetration. The analysis also predicts thepile shaft forces as a function of time after impact, which canbe transformed to the driving stresses in the pile cross sec-tion. The process is repeated for several ultimate resistancevalues. From the computer output, a curve showing the rela-tionship between the ultimate pile capacity and the penetra-tion resistance can be plotted. The maximum calculatedtensile and compressive stresses can also be plotted as afunction of either the penetration resistance or the ultimateload capacity. In the case of diesel hammers and other vari-able-stroke hammers, the analysis is performed at severaldifferent strokes (or equivalent strokes in the case of closed-top diesel hammers) to cover the potential stroke range thatmight develop in the field.Although results are applicable primarily to the set of con-ditions described by the input data, interpolations and ex-trapolations for other sets of conditions can be made withexperience and judgment. Routine input data describing theconditions analyzed include such parameters as hammer ramweight; hammer stroke; stiffness and coefficient of restitu-tion of the hammer cushion (and pile cushion if used); drivehead weight; pile type, material, dimensions, weight, andlength; soil quake and damping factors; percentage of pilecapacity developed by friction and point bearing; and thedistribution of frictional resistance over the pile length. Withdiesel hammers, the model must deal with the effects of gasforce on the hammer output and the steel-on-steel impactthat occurs as the ram contacts the anvil.Wave-equation analysis is a reliable and rational tool forevaluating the dynamics of pile driving and properly takesinto account most of the factors not included in the other dy-


The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development and distribution of consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.


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