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How to Get the Most Out of Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 for Your Geodetic Applications

The Bernese GNSS Software is a scientific, high-precision, multi-GNSS dataprocessing software developed at theAstronomical Institute ofthe University of Bern(AIUB). Itis, e.g., used by CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) for itsinternational (IGS) and European (EUREF/EPN) activities.The software is in a permanent process of development and improvement.This website provides information on thefeatures of the software andhow to obtain it.Please refer to the support page for information on thetested platforms, bug fixes, and how to reach us for technical support.The current version the Bernese GNSS Software is "5.4", with the release date of"2022-10-23".To update an older version, please select the appropriate form from theOrder page. We also recommend to bring your softwareto the latest release level following theupdate procedure.

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The purpose of this study is to precisely determine the orthometric height considering tropospheric delay at the top of the mountain where the height difference with reference ground surface is large. So, GNSS surveying was carried out at Cheonwangbong on Mount Jiri to determine the orthometric height, and GNSS data were processed by both DGNSS and PPP methods to determine ellipsoidal height using Bernese version 5.0 software. In this process, KNGeoid14 Korean geoid model was used and the effects of troposphere delay on the coordinates and orthometric height were analyzed. The study results showed that the tropospheric delay was reduced by 3.04 cm with every 100 m increase of the ellipsoidal height. The orthometric height and RMSE determined by the DGNSS method were found to be 1915.4596 m and 0.0520 m, respectively, and the orthometric height and RMSE determined by the PPP method were found to be 1915.4059 m and 0.0527 m, respectively. So, the difference between the DGNSS method and the PPP method when tropospheric corrections were applied showed a difference of 5.37 cm in orthometric height. And, the results also showed that the difference in whether or not the tropospheric delay model was applied in the calculation of the orthometric height was 1.53 cm in the same DGNSS method.

It is used by CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) for its international (IGS) and European (EUREF/EPN) activities. The software is continuously in a process of development and improvement.

Users can easily navigate through the software with the newly-developed windows-oriented user interface, clear input panels and program structure More than 600 pages of printed documentation, extended html-based online help panels and tech support by developers is also available for the best user experience.

The GPS data were obtained from a research project conducted by the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization to establish evaluation techniques for seismogenic faults, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, and the Mizusawa VLBI Observatory of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. We thank Dr. J. Muto for the discussion of rheological structure in the Tohoku region. We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers and an editor, Prof. Dr. A. Hasegawa, for useful discussions and comments to improve this paper. Most of the figures were generated using the GMT software (Wessel and Smith, 1998).

ASG-EUPOS is a Polish part of multifunctional EUropean POsitioning Stystem (EUPOS) that covers 16 Central European countries. EUPOS provides GPS correction data for real-time positioning and navigation as well as observation data for the post-processed positioning. ASG-EUPOS is an active reference network that provides a variety of services for geodesy, surveying and navigation. The separation between the reference stations is about 50-70 km; therefore, in the worst case scenario, the distance from the user receiver to the closest reference station should not exceed 40 km. One of the most important services for geodesy and surveying is rapid-static (fast-static) positioning, assuring centimeter-level accuracy of the horizontal position when using short spans of GPS data. ASG-EUPOS provides fully automatic, www-based postprocessing service - POZGEO - that requires minimum of 15 minutes of dual-frequency pseudorange and carrier-phase GPS data. Another postprocessing service is POZGEOD-D, where user can download data from the reference stations and process them together with his own observations using any software of choice. It should be noted that ASG-EUPOS is considered first-order control network and provides the realization of ETRS'89 in Poland. Bernese v.5.0 is a highly-regarded scientific software, primary designed and used for processing of regional and global satellite networks. It can estimate a number of parameters, e.g., station coordinates, tropospheric and ionospheric delays, orbital parameters, etc. However, in this paper, the Bernese software was applied to process short baselines up to 35 km using 15-minute long data sessions. This task required to develop and test a suitable processing strategy. This paper presents the results and analysis of several processing strategies applied to the processing of the user data. GPS data collected at the test sites were divided into 32 consecutive 15-minute long sessions. The most successful strategy was recommended and compared to the results obtained using the automatic POZGEO service that is based on a proprietary software. The results show that Bernese may be successfully applied to process precise local networks using relatively short observing sessions. It should be also noted that it is quite easy/convenient to employ Bernese in the automatic mode, what makes it a recommended tool for Internet-based automatic processing services.

To compute precise point positioning (PPP) and precise time transfer using GPS code and phase measurements, a new software named Atomium was developed by the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Atomium was also adapted to perform a phase-only analysis with the goal to obtain a continuous clock solution which is independent of the GPS codes. In this paper, the analysis strategy used in Atomium is described and the clock solutions obtained through the phase-only approach are compared to the results from the PPP mode. It is shown that the phase-only solution improves the stability of the time link for averaging times smaller than 7 days and that the phase-only solution is very sensitive to the station coordinates used. The method is, however, shown to perform better than the IGS clock solution in case of changes in the GPS receiver hardware delays which affects the code measurements.

The first part of this paper presents the analysis procedureused by Atomium to produce station position and clocks using PPP, andshows the clock solutions obtained for several stations in comparison with theIGS clock solution (IGS combined solution [11]) as well as the solutionsobtained by other software packages (NRCan and Bernese 5.0). The second partdescribes the theoretical background of the phase-only approach implemented in Atomium, compares the phase-only with the PPP results, and investigates the sensitivityof the phase-only method to its input parameters.

Atomium isbased on the ionosphere-free combinations of and and of and ,named and , respectively. The observations are usedat the 5-minute sampling rate. The satellite positions are obtained using a Nevilleinterpolation on 12 points of the IGS sp3 files in which the satellitepositions are given at a 15-minute sampling rate. The satellite clockcorrections are extracted from the IGS clock filesin which the sampling rate is 5 minutes. The station position is corrected forits time variations due to degree 2 solid Earth tides as given in the IERS conventions[13] and ocean loading effects, using the FES2004 model [14]. The respective elevation (no-azimuth) and nadir-de- pendent absolutecorrections for the receiver and satellite antenna phase center variations asmade available by the IGS ( )are applied, and the carrier phase measurements are corrected for phase winduptaking into account the satellite attitude. Periods of eclipse events areeliminated. The instrumental code delays are considered as constant and notincluded in the present version of the software.

In order to validate the Atomium software, the clock resultsobtained from the PPP analysis were also compared with the results obtainedfrom two other software capable of performing PPP: NRCan [12] and Bernese 5.0[17]. The Bernese software does not directly interpolate the IGS orbits, asdone by the NRCan and Atomium software, but it transforms the SP3 positions to an inertial frame, performs anumerical integration of the equations of motion and then converts the obtainedsatellite positions back to the earth-fixed system.

Figure 2 shows the comparison betweenthe results obtained for IENG over one week with Atomium, NRCan, and Bernese. TheNRCan solution has been corrected for a constant bias of about 4 nanosecondswith respect to the other solutions. This bias is caused by the fact that theversion of the NRCan software used in this work is using relative correctionsfor the satellite and antenna phase center variations while the Bernese, Atomium, and the IGS use absolute corrections since November 2006. The NRCan biasremains visible in the lower part of Figure 2 which displays the differencesbetween the different clock results and the IGS clock solution. We can see thatthe differences have similar amplitudes with an rms ranging between 30 and 100 picosecondsover the analyzed week, but note that the rms is affected both by the accuracyof the solution during the different days, and its precision.

We also compared our phase-onlyanalysis with the continuous (or multiday) PPP solution obtained with the NRCansoftware [7]. This software is able to analyze a data batch of several days with sequential leastsquares, using both code and phase observables.The resulting multiday PPP solution does not suffer from day-boundarydiscontinuities and one single position can be estimated for the whole period processed.


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